Roland Dürre
Wednesday March 20th, 2019

The Digital Car of the Future (extrapolated)

This is how we will live in 1975 – Hobby title page of November 1955/strong>

Extrapolation is if you extend a message beyond its actual range. Mostly, you can only extrapolate after having interpolated.

Even in mathematics, this is not easy. Now I will try and give a soft future prognosis about our life with mobility. I will not use mathematics but only logical and cynical ideas.

I imagine what digital land-based vehicles, also known as cars, will look like?

As always, I start with (German) Wikipedia. Currently, you will find the following description:

 


The term autonomous vehicle defines a car or other vehicle that can drive, steer and park without being influenced by a human driver (highly automated driving – Hochautomatisiertes Fahren) or  autonomous driving – Autonomes Fahren).


 

Well, I wish it were that easy. Initially, when I was thinking of an autonomous car, I believed that such a vehicle comes and picks me up and looks a little like a scooter. Like the ones we drove as children on the fairtground. And I hop in and the car brings me to where I wanted to go and that was it.

Then I read the newspapers (especially the section Mobilität of the SZ weekend edition). And I found out that such a car must be able to do a lot more.

  • It is fully digitalized. That means I can do all the things I can do at home with WLAN. 
That is especially nice if we – the car and I – are standing in the queue. Then I can do all my work sitting in the car – just like in the home office – and that means I will not need to go to work by car.
  • The car is probably also supposed to be able to fly. 
That will be quite necessary if you wish to avoid all the queues. And because I want to take the direct route. Without having to zigzag around on the streets.
  • During longer drives, you will also want to sleep in the car. For instance if you drive from Munich to Hamburg at night. Basically, I want to go from Munich to Westerland. Except that I will hardly get to Sylt sleeping Because they have the Hindenburg-Damm with the old railway. So here is another barrier for the car of the future. Naturally, this is not a problem for the flying car, which would simply fly over it. 
The problem will start when I need (for me and my companion) a seat that is about as comfortable as that in the business class or first class of a plane. In other words: it cannot be a city scooter. Instead, it would have to be closer to a sort of camper. On the other hand, if I have this kind of car, then I will not need a hotel. The parking place I need does not have to be close to the destination, either. The car can easily take me there on the next morning. And then it flies away and returns when I want to go back to Munich. All these things are supposed to happen through digitalization.

 

A car comes flying … Hobby title page of August 1956

So I need some kind of drone around a VW bus. After all, this new wonder vehicle does not need to be owned by me.

We have ”shared economy“, don’t we? So I can order the vehicle by a simple click – regardless if it is a city scooter or a camper. Then it will come, neatly cleaned and prepared for the trip. It will not matter if I want to go to the coffee shop around the corner or travel far. And I will enter and we can start.

What a nice new world!

But it will probably only be for the very rich. For those who, in former times, were nobility and bishops. Who used to have the coaches and horses. Along with the coachmen. As part of a feudal life.

The “normal people” will be taken to central points from central points by “people movers” (what they used to call public transportation). And then they have to walk the rest of the way or else take electric rollers, skateboards and other mobility toys that will then have been invented. Provided the Federal Minister of Transport will find a solution. Currently, that is not what seems to happen.

And then I meet a young software engineer. He went to get a job at BMW, because programming an autonomous land-based vehicle is allegedly one of the few remaining challenges for computer scientists today. And, like many analysts and decision makers, he still believes in the autonomous car.

I have my doubts about the nice new future world. My reasons are quite banal. For instance, I believe that, in times of climate change, impoverishment, destruction of infra structure and social problems, we will have other things to worry about. Also, I am not sure that the people who live in precarious situations find it so great if they see how the rich are flown through the air in luxury limousines.

They say that a university (Universität) situated somewhere in the ex-GDR already designed the first autonomous bicycles. Based on tricycles (because it seems that autonomous bicycles are probably too hard to make).

Well, I can only say how much I like the good old individualized mobility on two wheels. I would gladly tolerate e-bikes (which brings us back to motorized individualized mobility MIV). But it should be reasonably motorized with true joy in driving.

RMD
(Translated by EG)

Roland Dürre
Tuesday March 5th, 2019

After Mardi Gras, There is Ash Wednesday.

 

Property, violence, justice, safety and abstinence …

 

It does not matter if you run, ride a bike, ski or drive a car. If you hit someone, then this is violence. Speed is violence.

 

Stone mask from the pre-ceramic stone age around 7,000 before Christ. One of the world’s oldest masks (Musée Bible et Terre Sainte, Paris)

Today is Mardi Gras. You can wear masks. You can wear costumes. Fool’s freedom means that you can take another role. And you need not stick by all the rules and keep up all the moral laws.

That feels nice. For several weeks, they have now made laws that look arbitrary to me and that I cannot understand. Because now the Great Coalition have changed from the argument mode to the working mode. Since laws mostly are not very good, I preferred the argument mode.
After they took the German Citizenship away for IS fighters, there is an EU-wide attack on the internet. But they also discuss the great liberty of German car drivers, the speed limit. A Swedish (?) producer restricts the cars to 180 km/h. Somehow or other, this is unimaginable in Germany. Basically, I do not even understand why cars that drive faster than 130 km/h are allowed on any streets at all.

Because I am personally against all speed. Both in life and in a car. For instance, I would feel a lot more comfortable if cars were allowed no more than 30 km/h in towns and no more than 70 km/ on highways, along with a maximum of 120 km/h on motorways.

But on the other hand, I am against all sorts of prohibitions. How can I solve this dilemma and still give a good reason for limiting the speed of vehicles? By introducing the factor violence! After all, in our times, the application of violence is a monopoly of the state. That is also true for weapons (let us ignore for the sake of argument that there are many exceptions, even in this country). This means that humans consciously agreed to not use violence and that only the state can use it in very clearly specified situations.

Well, knocking down a pedestrian or cyclist is just as much an act of violence as driving into another car. And that is exactly what people in civilized countries have agreed to forego. That makes it quite simple when it comes to speed limits and limitations for objects of the MIV (Motorisierter Individual Verkehr), part of which are also electrically powered vehicles, such as e-bikes.

What is left in our times that actually moves people? As I see it, the answer is: property, justice, safety and abstinence.

Property.


Does it make sense that legal persons have the same rights to property as actual persons? That ideas – we know they should be free – can become private property? Or that even data are considered private property? 
What about common land? What exactly belongs to the common land and how to treat it? What about the self-possession of persons? Or will we get a new form of fiefdom?

Justice.


Arithmetically, it is impossible, at least that is how it seems ever since Aristotle. But what is suitable? Should society award social credits in order to regulate it? Or should some be expropriated?

Safety.

What is safety. Perhaps protection from violence? That would mean we come full circle. We do not want violence against us. If I am a pedestrian, I do not want to be hit by a car or bike. And so on.

Abstinence.


Everybody knows that, if we want to save the planet, we will not only have to change many of our habits, but also practice abstinence. And what do we do? We fly more, drive bigger and bigger SUVs and eat bigger and bigger portions of meat.

Besides property, justice, violence, safety, power and abstinence, there are many more inter-related topics. They are so complex that the only chance to contain them is a new social consensus.

Tomorrow is again Ash Wednesday. Then the hilarity is over. I already dread the political meetings with their speakers. They will again bark and beat. Both men (CSU) and women (Grüne, SPD). Because this is all about the sovereignty over the regulars’ table. And not about peace and social consensus.

It is really sad – so take off your mask and atone.

RMD
(Translated by EG)

Roland Dürre
Monday April 9th, 2018

Double Agents

 

Double agent Dnalor in Warnemünde

Irony and Reality

Since I am an avid reader of John le Carré (Verräter wie wir) and Herbert Rosendorfer (Das Messingherz), I am, of course, very familiar with secret services and their methods.
Currently, there is another fantastic “use case” that I want to discuss with competence and analyse technologically. It is called Lapirks or something close.

Incidentally, the two books I mentioned are absolutely brilliant and worth reading. If I had to choose, I would probably put the „Messingherz“ silghtly before the other one. But here is my topic of today: the “double agent murder“!


Let us assume you are part of the secret service of an EU country and you want to do away with a double agent who is an extreme pain.

A double agent will have played two “employers” against each other for several years. He was paid well by both. Neither of the two employers can ever be quite sure if and when they were the employee’s priority. Perhaps both? This is also true for the employer who, at long last, will have him sitting as a(n) (inconvenient) louse in the pelt and has to pay his old age pension.

Consequently, being a double agent makes you some kind of champion in the secret service league, probably only topped by the very scarce three- or fourfold agent. On the other hand, it must be assumed that, first and foremost, a double agent is always an agent in his own interest. …

The employers of a double agent are in an uncomfortable situation. Because there is always the suspicion that, in reality, they were the ones that were cheated. But then, among secret services, “reality“  is not really important. What matters is “non-reality“!

Of course, if you kill someone, you will not like admitting to the deed. Not even if he was a double agent. In such a case, nothing is more natural than pointing towards the second employer.

For the double agent murder, you have two options: the single or the double indirection. The more intelligent but also the more costly way is doubtless the double indirection. In a nutshell, this is how it works:

Initially, you first let the – feign – suspicion point slightly towards yourself.  And then you are totally relaxed while proving that you actually cannot have been the murderer. Obviously, the other employer of the murdered (or rather: executed?) person must have done it.

Naturally, in neither of the two cases you use one of your own agents to kill the double agent. Usually, a friendly secret service will do it. Together with said friendly secret service, you will leave traces of evidence (that must be easy to prove wrong) that point towards your organization. And you also leave traces of evidence (that must be rock-solid) that show that the other employer was the murderer.

Using well prepared evidence, you show that you definitely cannot have done it! However, the other employer wants to make you look guilty! How outrageous! And here you are: you have the simple conclusion that only the other employer can have been the one. After all, he is evil incarnated, which is easy to prove, because, as everybody knows, you are a saint.

This scenario (initially feigning that you yourself are under suspicion and then finding out that the other one must have been it) can actually be quite successful. Especially if you perform with virtuosity and patience. And it can easily happen that the other employer will eventually look quite stupid.

However, this scenario is more for intelligent people. And in the Lapirks case, the only party that might perhaps have used this method are the Russians.

If the English were the culprits, then they used the simple indirection – which is common among secret service agents. To be sure, mostly it will not succeed because it is so clumsy. But this is irrelevant, because in the secret service world, nothing ever succeeds. Only the consequences of their activities are often quite atrocious.

The often used method of the simple indirection (which, of course, le Carré does not use in his demanding novels) works as follows:

You (as a secret service) ask a really good friend from the former Warshaw Pact for his support (this is really just an example!). He could, for instance, belong to the secret service from the former East Block countries you are now allied with. That would be someone who switched sides and has know-how and material about the environment of the second employer of the double agent who needs to be out of the way. Using “quasi Russian” methods, he puts the double agent out of action for a small favour. He likes doing this, because he (no longer) likes the Russians and enjoys giving them a hard time.

It is absolutely normal and not a problem if the double agent survives because he has not done a good job. More likely than not, the entire affair is about something totally different. That is the advanced secret service alphabet.

You will then immediately inform your political “superiors” that the Russians have, again, as is typical for them, done something very evil. Naturally, the term “superior” is nonsense, because if you are secret service, you do what you like. Forget about parliamentary control mechanisms…

In the case of a double agent, it is always easy to find a motive. In this case, the murder is meant as a warning to other double agents. Well, it sounds a little artificial, but then what is not artificial when we are talking secret services?

Your government will gladly believe you, because, after many embarrassing activities, they want to demonstrate strength. In fact, they do not want to know who was the culprit. After all, even they themselves (their secret service) might have been the ones. As I said: what government trusts its own secret service? And you really do not want to know something as unappetizing as this, do you?

Consequently, the best thing a government can do is be offensive and accuse the other side. The more massive and resolute you are about accusing the other party, the less anybody will doubt your word.

Of course, you will have to remove all witnesses. In our case a consternated cat. Since the secret service has a weak spot for cats, said cat will be killed for “humane reasons“. And, of course, you will have to follow the usual procedure, like burn all documents and delete all data.

Nor can you provide any tickets. After all, you cannot jeopardize your sources (other double agents). They, too, might get killed. Incidentally, this is an extremely stupid argument. It opens all the options.


So much for my satirical comment.

It could have been totally different. Especially if we are talking double agents. Perhaps a third party cheated on both the Brits and the Russians. It might have been some Mafia or the Americans. Or an individual criminal? Just because he needed revenge for something. Or whatever. Many scenarios are imaginable and the ”truth“ will probably never surface. Only one thing seems obvious: the “official” version as published by the British secret service is the least likely one.

And, again, I ask myself why we have secret services at all. And if these per-se uncontrollable police-like military units that are permitted to work beyond the constitutional state are perhaps a rather dangerous instrument in a constitutional democracy where the government is democratically legitimated.

RMD
(Translated by EG)

Roland Dürre
Saturday December 30th, 2017

UNOFFICIAL TERROR WARNING!

Munich, December, 30th, 2018, 12:00 – Source: IF Blog

Urgent:

Unofficial terror warning, level 4, for all the citizens of the FRG, especially in big cities. 

A billion dollar deal!

Attention:
Tomorrow, a huge collective mass, not necessarily defined by religion, but certainly fanatic humans, will become victims of consumer terror. In almost exactly 36 hours, there will be a category 1 fine-dust attack on the environment (not only) in Germany.

The target of this collective terror will be the air we breathe, especially in big cities. Among these small terrorists, you will – not totally to my surprise – find many car drivers who add to the misery they spread all the year round by a big bang. They will shoot rackets into the night until the last one is spent.

This environmental catastrophe will continue until the early morning of January, 1st. It is triggered by masses of firecrackers. The alarm can only be turned off in the morning of January, 1st. The main attack against our health will last for about one hour. More sporadic explosions and emissions are still possible during the subsequent hours and days.

Especially elderly, handicapped and sick persons, along with children, are strongly advised to remain in their flats and keep the windows closed during the night between December, 31st, 2017 and January, 1st, 2018. All exercise in fresh air, such as hiking or riding a bike, are strictly forbidden.

Due to collateral events accompanying this eruption, the advice is also directed to all females (see additional sexism warning below).

The considerable noise is a collateral damage related to the terrorist attack but can be ignored. To be sure, if you listen, you might be reminded of war and bombs and thus suffer traumata. But basically, the only living creatures that really suffer are animals.

Since the rockets do not contain military pay-load and the explosive charges – let us hope all of them – have to be empty (experts call them castrated explosive charges), the physical and emotional damage, as well as the material destruction of objects and houses, will, luckily, be minimal.

But we have to give a massive warning because of the increased alcohol consumption of all the prosperity terrorists involved. Consequently, there is quite a chance that “anonymous situations” will be used for sexual assaults (from turning you on verbally over physical closeness to rape).

Women, therefore, should avoid locations where masses of people converge. This is especially true for railway stations and plazas near other traffic junctions.

If a woman really needs to leave her home around the critical time, then she should only do so wearing total body mummery and she should be accompanied by several strong men.

If you ignore this unofficial warning, you must take responsibility for possible consequences and cannot claim that “you did not know”!

RMD
(Translated by EG)

P.S.
This article is only partially meant as a joke. Because fine dust at Sylvester (Feinstaub an Silvester) is not at all something I find funny. It is also interesting that the Bayerische Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz gives an “official” warning that exploding firecrackers can cause injuries.
However, this official source does not mention at all how essentially and massively the maniac fireworks create fine dust. But at least the Federal Ministry gives a statement. The church used to have a motto: “food instead of fireworks”.
But that, too, seems no longer en vogue?

Hans Bonfigt
Friday September 22nd, 2017

Krampfhennenreport #1: VerbraucherschützerInnen

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

Hans Bonfigt
Monday September 11th, 2017

Autobahn 2.0: Der neugrüne Rassismus – Hully Gully

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

Hans Bonfigt
Monday July 10th, 2017

(Deutsch) Digitale Dekadenz und degenerative Demenz

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

Roland Dürre
Wednesday July 5th, 2017

About Weapons and Cars

On July, 13th, we will again meet for an “AktMobCmp“ and dream of peaceful and active mobility. I take that as a motivation to write a polemic article against cars and weapons. On the other hand, it is not at all polemic. If it were not so sad, it would actually be hilarious.

CAREFUL – I know about cars! “My Porsche (from Distler) and I!“

Each year, millions of new cars are distributed around the planet. Most of them arrive at the customer, but more and more just sit there waiting. Sometimes many thousands of them in the desert (see CAREFUL – I also know about weapons – pistols, guns, machine-guns and bazookas.). Sometimes hundreds of them in our small world, at the small and medium-sized “second-hand car salespersons” that you find by the dozens along all the bigger and smaller streets that lead to and from our smaller and bigger cities.

But also the “registered” cars are only used sporadically, Mostly they sit around, often looking very stupid and blocking ways. They use up immense space plastered with concrete and steal the people their living areas. I do not find that nice. Except if all those cars were driving around all the time, that would be an unimaginable catastrophe. So it is probably better that they are sitting around.


Because it just does not make sense that the world is being packed with and overridden by more than one billion “motorized vehicles” and that there are probably already more car seats than humans.


Something must change – because this planet cannot survive it. But money reigns over the world – and cars are an excellent way to make money. After all, cars are perfect for the ego of the consumer-oriented person you find in our “modern and developed society”.

CAREFUL – I also know about weapons – pistols, guns, machine-guns and bazookas.

It is similar with weapons. Here, too, an unbelievable amount is produced each year. I truly do not know if the world spends more money on cars or on weapons. Both sums are probably unimaginable.

Weapons, too, are first and foremost status symbols. Perhaps even more so than cars. What the pistol or the gun is for Jim and John, the intercontinental ballistic rocket is for the powerful. And they all upgrade all the time. Even in Bavaria, because the state is becoming unsafe. The police because your Jim and John becomes more and more violent. And the NATO and its enemies because the general state of the world becomes more and more dangerous.

Both weapons and cars, however, are not only good for your ego. With weapons, too, you can really make a profit. Luckily, weapons – as opposed to cars or just like cars (?) – are mostly produced in reserve. From the business perspective, that makes no sense in the long run, because you must actually use them. So you will need wars. And whenever, through a huge effort, you actually get peace somewhere, you will want to create war somewhere else. It does not really take a huge effort. And if you want to remain in business, you will never want wars to end!

Luckily (for us) wars generally take place in a part of the world that is quite far away from us. Because we find war is a bad thing. Here in Europe, they declared war taboo. To be sure, we earn good money with wars, but we do not want to see the results.

Even if there is a little bit of terror, we overreact. Well, this is an absolute no-go. After all, we already have enough victims of our wars on the motorways and streets of our republic. That is enough. So we wage wars as far away from our borders as possible. And we are especially keen on fighting terror.


But woe if the weapons are used everywhere. That would be called world-war. That would mean an end to comfort and “over-and-out”. For all of us.


The cars already play at “world-war”. World-wide, they murder considerably more than a million persons each year (they say the number is 1.25 million, with many times ten-fold as many seriously wounded).

That is probably more than, so far, all weapons together manage to kill every year – even if we count and sum up with normal weapons victims (like in the USA), with those caused by terror attacks and those of all the “just wars” for or against some brain-damaged concepts.


There are absurdities both with weapons and cars! And if it were not so sad, one would have to find it hilarious.


For instance, there is a very modern cannon sitting on a very modern ship. Let us guess which “non-evil country” owns them. However, you are not allowed to use the cannon, because every shot costs 800,000 US-Dollars. It is particularly embarrassing if the ship we mentioned gets stuck in the Panama Channel. That was the Zumwalt (2016).

But there must be a time when the cannon of the Zumwalt has to be used. I am not all that familiar with it (after all, I served with the air force), but perhaps such an expensive shot will be worth it when, later on, a Chinese aircraft carrier is shot down. Allegedly, they are building quite a few of them now. Well, one would assume that the first shot has to be on target.

The MOAB, which, incidentally, was originally not called the mother of all bombs – the Pentagon would never come up with such a cynical name – too, had to be tried out at some time. And since they knew no better, they chose Pakistan. Because such a poor country cannot really fight back, and besides, it has to be liberated from the Taliban.

So they allegedly destroyed a huge subterranean Taliban complex. And because they had protected the civilians optimally before they threw the bomb, they knew the exact numbers of killed Taliban shortly after the bomb had been delivered. How wonderfully absurd.
As far as cars are concerned, I see the absurdities on a daily basis in the streets of Munich. Some of them are called SUVs and sometimes they have more horsepower than a truck or bus. And their emissions land right in my face and in my lungs, just like the smoke used to when someone sat opposite me eating their Pizza in the restaurant and smoking a cigarette.


A friend of mine suggested that they should first transfer the emissions of cars into the inside of the cars, before releasing them into the atmosphere. Riding my bike along the Rosenheimer Strasse, I am quite inclined to vote in favour of that idea.


With cars, we have a new development. Because even the terrorists, who are not very well-educated, have now found out what a good tool cars are when it comes to doing their job: the car as the best of all bombs. They use it more and more often. The cities and towns already start protecting their squares and pedestrians’ zones with bollards. Maybe we should invest in enterprises that make bollards?

I close my article with numbers from the German Federal Statistical Office about the war on our streets .


WIESBADEN – 239 persons died in traffic accidents in April 2017. According to the Federal Statistics Office (Destatis), this was eight fatalities or 3.2 % fewer than in April 2016. The number of injured persons decreased by 12.0 % to circa 28.300 compared the same month last year.
The number of persons killed between January and April 2017 was 867, which is more or less the same as in the same time period 2016 (865). Roughly 105,600 persons were injured during the first four months of 2017 on German streets, which is a decline of 2.9 % compared to the same interval in 2016. The number of accidents also declined. In the first four months of 2017, the police counted 790,400 traffic accidents, which is 1.4% less than last year. In 81,300 of these accidents, humans were injured (– 2.7 %) and in 709,000 accidents, there was only material damage (– 1.2 %).


Well, at least they say the number decreased. Regardless of the number of persons killed going up. But then, why bother with two more fatalities?

RMD
(Translated by EG)

Hans Bonfigt
Monday May 22nd, 2017

Wut essen Seele auf…

Sorry, this entry is only available in German.

DSC_1659or:
 How the Chauffeured Gentleman Imagines the Autonomous Car.

ADFC – that is the lobby club for us bike riders. Many bike riders think this club is a little stuffy and consider it just the equivalent of the ADAC. Consequently, they prefer free grass root movements, such as “Critical Mass“ and the like. Regardless, it is a pleasure for me to be an ADFC member and I also support the association with lobby work wherever possible. And I also very much recommend the membership.

The ADFC also organizes many excellent events. One of them is the lunch discussion group in Munich. At those lunches, I already witnessed many interesting presentations, for instance by Herrn Ude (when he was still mayor of Munich), Herrn Ramsauer (when he was Federal Minister of Transport), Toni Hofreiter (as mobility expert of the Green Party), but also by persons who are less publicly well-known, as for example the DB-Regio .managing director. The discussions were always very interesting and important.

Yesterday, we had another ADFC lunch discussion in Munich. The speaker was Peter Driessen , who is general manager of the IHK Munich and Upper Bavaria. For those who do not know what IHK is: it means Industrie- und Handelskammer (Chamber for Industry and Commerce). It is an organisation you have to be a member of if you own an enterprise, just as you have to pay their membership fees.

As an entrepreneur, you do not know why you have to be a member, but in return, you get a high-gloss magazine at regular intervals that is rather lacking in content and not very interesting either – and that will immediately end up In the rubbish bin. The IHK is generally quite present in people’s minds, because more often than not it has many managing directors – and those managing directors earn quite good money. After all, they are also responsible for many enterprises (see Official List of IHK on incomes of the GF team, not included other advantages such as business car and chauffeur, etc. – Offizielle Liste der IHK zur Einkünfte der GF-Teams ohne weitere Vorteile wie Geschäftsauto mit Fahrer etc.).

And then, Peter D. (without having intended to) explained with a personal true example how all the different traffic systems might be integrated in the future, at the same time disclosing his personal vision of a “driver-less car”:


“On the way to a presentation, his chauffeur-driven car got stuck in the traffic jam at Donnersberger Brücke. And since there was no chance for him to reach his destination in time using the private vehicle, he just left his car and continued on his way by S-Bahn train. And he managed to be on time. This would not have been possible without a chauffeur, since he could not have left the car standing in the middle of the Donnersberger Brücke, could he?”.

He then completed this example using his personal vision of a self-driving car:


“This is how, in such situations, you could continue by using public transportation in order to reach your destiny on time and the driver-less car could then do a leisurely turn through the congested streets and eventually retrieve its owner”.

He sounded rather serious when he said this. Perhaps he meant it as a joke? Except that such a concept of mobile future is all but hilarious. Especially if it comes from an important representative of a business association, at least one who considers himself extremely important.

RMD
(Translated by EG)